The generalized increase in population on the African continent inexorably leads to increasing anthropic pressure on natural resources. The anarchic development of agriculture is generating land pressure, a source of conflict. It is also at the origin of a growing phenomenon of deforestation, overexploitation of water resources, as well as soil depletion. Global warming amplifies these phenomena and increases the risks of food insecurity for populations. This situation must be taken into account in all projects. It is necessary to help the impacted populations to find a balance in their relationship with the environment. Its exploitation must be reasoned and sustainable.